The FOREACH clause feeds the components of a list to a sub-query comprised of updating clauses only (CREATE, MERGE, SET, REMOVE, DELETE and FOREACH), while passing on the records it receives without change.

The clauses within the sub-query recognize the bound variables defined prior to the FOREACH clause, but are local in the sense that later clauses are not aware of the variables defined inside them. In other words, FOREACH uses the current context, and does not affect it.

The FOREACH clause can be used for numerous purposes, such as: Updating and creating graph entities in a concise manner, marking nodes\edges that satisfy some condition or are part of a path of interest and performing conditional queries.

We show examples of queries performing the above 3 use-cases.

The following query will create 5 nodes, each with property v with the values from 0 to 4 corresponding to the appropriate index in the list.

"FOREACH(i in [1, 2, 3, 4] | CREATE (n:N {v: i}))"

The following query marks the nodes of all paths of length up to 15 km from a hotel in Toronto to a steakhouse with at least 2 Michelin stars.

"MATCH p = (hotel:HOTEL {City: 'Toronto'})-[r:ROAD*..5]->(rest:RESTAURANT {type: 'Steakhouse'}) WHERE sum(r.length) <= 15 AND hotel.stars >= 4 AND rest.Michelin_stars >= 2
FOREACH(n in nodes(p) | SET n.part_of_path = true)"

The following query searches for all the hotels, checks whether they buy directly from a bakery, and if not - makes sure they are marked as buying from a supplier that supplies bread, and that they do not buy directly from a bakery.

FOREACH(do_perform IN CASE WHEN b = NULL THEN [1] ELSE [] END | MERGE (h)-[b2:BUYS_FROM]->(s:SUPPLIER {supplies_bread: true}) SET = false)"